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There are two facets to the question: the extent of the Persian presence in Anatolia, which was under Persian control for two centuries (and the concomitant question of the extant of Greek contact with Anatolia during this period); and the evidence for the importation of Persians and their cultural artifacts into Greece itself.
For long it seemed that the Achaemenids, though the masters of Anatolia for two hundred years, left no material trace of their presence there; and in their absence, the chances for real cultural exchange between Persians and Greeks seemed to have been few.
Nonetheless, enough now survives from excavation and repatriated tomb materials to show that Sardis (and Lydia) under the Persians was highly acculturated to the Achaemenid model (Dusinberre, 2002). Although no Old Persian inscriptions have yet been found at Sardis, Aramaic is well represented. The unique tomb at Taş Kule near Phokaia has Persian elements, suggesting that it was either for a Persian from early in the period, or for an Achaemenidizing local leader (Cahill). Neither Daskyleion nor Sardis can be said to show greater receptivity to East Greek culture. Alexander the Great is said by the sources to have learned much from the Persians that he conquered (e.g., Court protocol: Curtius, 8.5.5-24, Plutarch, 45, Arrian, 4.9.9). Susanne Ebbinghaus, “Between Greece and Per-sia: Rhyta in Thrace from the Late 5th to the Early 3rd Centuries B. The following is organised from most to least tangible. The most long-lived contribution of Achaemenid toreutic to the Greek repertoire was the use of fluting, grooving, and petal-grooving as surface decorations (PLATE IX; Athens, Agora Excavations, Inv. P18288 [left] and P 10980); they had hitherto been largely unknown in the archaic Greek tradition and became a permanent, if not a universal, component. It is not clear whether they were imported or a local imitation (Arvanitopoulos; Dentzer, 1969, pp. It has been argued that the Athenian acropolis as a whole represents a deliberate mid-5th-century response to the Persian imperial center at Persepolis (Lawrence). Nonetheless, iconographic and epigraphic evidence indicate that a number of foreign clothing types entered the wardrobe of the elite Athenian women and occasionally men in the 5th century B. The specific garments that can be identified include the , a tunic-like overgarment, worn by women over their chiton, and by men over a short chiton or alone (the patterned garment on PLATE XIII, Bologna Musico civico, Inv. The sleeved chiton contrasts strikingly with the Greek clothing repertoire, where anything like tailoring is anathema (garments were worn as removed from the loom, with the addition of pins and belts to secure them). The Persian , though rarely attested in art for Athenian wear, figures prominently in the votive offerings by Athenian women of used clothing at the sanctuary of Artemis of Brauron (PLATE XIII, above; Linders; Knauer, pp. Nonetheless, the preference for elaborately decorated textiles in the later 5th century Attic red figure painting has been linked with a new taste for “foreign textiles” as a result of trade and booty in this period (von Lorentz; Miller, 1997, pp. The extent to which physical luxury pertained in classical Athens is a matter of some debate, but despite the claims of ancient authors and the general silence of the archeological record, there is evidence to suggest that the Persian East provided models for new mechanisms of expression of social hierarchy in classical Athens, and perhaps elsewhere in mainland Greece as well.
Possible evidence for intermarriage can later be found in the mixture of Lydian, Greek, and Persian names on a 4th-century list of residents of Sardis (the “sacrilege inscription”: Hanfmann; cf. Evidence for Zoroastrian funerary ritual at Gelenbe in western Lydia has been claimed (L’vov-Basirov). The first traces of Persian presence in Daskyleion (Ergili) appear in the late 6th century B. There is now evidence for Milesian marble-workers at Daskyleion in the late archaic period, which points to a rich cultural mix at the site (Bakır, 1997, p. Epigraphical evidence shows the use of Aramaic, Lydian, and Greek in addition to Phrygian, and sealings bear Old Persian and Babylonian inscriptions (Bakır, 2001). E., a horizontally-fluted glass beaker, two silver deep bowls, and two silver phialai (Ignatiadou; Themelis and Touratsoglou, Cat. B 45, B12-13 and B18-19); and from Pydna a gem and a conoidal stamp seal (Paspalas, 2000b, n. A Persian-type horse bit was excavated at Olynthos (Donder, p. Iconographically, the most telling indication is the report that in his funeral cortege was suspended a representation of Alexander enthroned and holding a sceptre, surrounded by Macedonian and Persian guards (Diodorus, 18.26.3); this may owe something to Perso-Anatolian funerary practice as well as to the Achaemenid imperial vision (Root, p. The extent to which Macedon responded to Persian material culture before Alexander, inspired perhaps by diplomatic gifts and the regalia of high-status exiles, remains less clear (Barr-Sharrar, 1986; Themelis and Touratsoglou, pp. An Achaemenid glass phiale from the Sanctuary of Demeter at Dion with a deposi-tion date of the 5th century verifies that Achaemenid goods did earlier make their way to Macedon (Ignatiadou p. Macedonian emulation of the Achaemenid deep bowl in silver had evidently begun already by the mid-4th century (Pfrommer pp. Indeed, Perso-Anatolian monumental tomb practice has been thought to have contributed to the monumentalization of Macedonian tombs at a crucial period (Paspalas, 2000b, p. The receptivity to Achaemenid Persia is manifested in discrete spheres of production, doubtless a reflection of the modes of contact and the specific range of cultural values implied: luxury toreutic, textiles, imperial imagery. The clearest evidence of Greek receptivity to the material culture of the Achaemenid Empire comes from ceramic material, most especially fine ware fabrics with a plain black gloss finish. Some derivative surface treatments are also visible in Boeotian and Elean (Peloponnesos) wares. Moreover, the frieze around the cella of the Parthenon, with its timeless rendering of the Panathenaic festival procession, both in entire conception and in occasional detail, is sometimes compared with Persian procession friezes, though its rich multivalency precludes a single line of interpretation (Kyrieleis, pp. Attested both in epigraphical sources and iconographically from about 440, they must reflect a foreign, possibly Persian, garment (PLATE XIV, Paris, Musée du Louvre, Inv. The traditional Greek economy relied largely on subsistence agriculture, with some assistance from trade based on a range of manufactured goods.
The evidence for Persian presence in Anatolia shows that East Greeks must have known Persians well; indeed, almost all of the known Greeks who spoke Persian come from this region (Miller, pp. Excavated ceramics verify that trade between the Greek world and Persian-held Asia Minor (and the Levant) continued throughout the period, showing no hint of a negative impact from military or other tensions.
This evidence comes from the satrapal centers Daskyleion (Tuna-Nörling, 1998, pp. B881; East Greek animal-head cups appear to be close imitations rather than adaptations). The importance of the hypostyle hall in Achaemenid Persian architecture, and its comparatively rare appearance in Greek architecture, makes any hypostyle hall in Greece suspected of Persian influence.
There are indications, too, of emulation of Persian court ceremonial and setting.
While some of the sealings are manifestly Persian, bearing the names of Xerxes and Artaxerxes in Old Persian and images copied from the imperial centers (AMI 22, 1989, p. 1." href="/img/v11f3/Greece_ii_plate01.jpg"PLATE I; Kaptan, 1996; idem, 2001), others share affinities with the coinage of nearby Greek cities like Kyzikos and must be local products (Kaptan, 1990; idem, 2000). Yet the form of the stelai and their workmanship reveal a local production. The response ranges from close imitation, to moderate adaptation, to modification of existing vessel types, either in profile or surface treatment. The Persian Empire (perhaps particularly the western satrapies) provided models.
Sculpted stelai and related funerary reliefs exhibit a distinctive iconography of social (hunting on horseback and banqueting), funerary, and ritual practices, and they range in date from about 500 B. The discovery of Perso-Anatolian sarcophagi at recent excavations of tumuli in the wider region testifies to the spread of Persian culture between the late 6th and 4th centuries (Sevinç, 1996, 1998, 1999, and forthcoming). imported Achaemenid Persian goods played a significant role in articulating social divisions in the emergent Odryssian kingdom of Thrace. The Thracian silver jug is an adaptation of the Persian amphora (Ewigleben, p. Bowls and jugs are well exemplified by the Rogozen Treasure (Fol, Nikolov, and Hoddinott, passim). may be an import or a local product (Lilibake-Akamate; Paspalas, 2000b). at Dion imitates hanging Achaemenid textiles, with pacing lion and radiate lion-head motifs (Soteriades; Boardman). One may suppose that the same response occurred in Greek metalware, but Greek metalware rarely survives (see Shefton, pp. The Attic “calyx cup” with its petal-grooving imitated the lobed Achaemenid deep bowl for the period around 350-260 B. The social differentiation implicit in differences in leisure gained new physical attributes in the later 6th and 5th centuries: the parasol, the fan, and the flywhisk (PLATE XIV, above; PLATE XV, Paestum, Salerno, Museo Archeologico Nationale).
Achaemenid luxury toreutic from the region would appear to be largely a product of local workshops rather than imported from the Persian heartlands, as witnessed by the Lydian and Phrygian inscriptions on the vessels (Melikian-Chirvani; Özgen and Öztürk, cat. 42, 60, 71); and the decorative syntax is occasionally ungrammatical in the visual language of the Persian imperial centers (Özgen and Öztürk, cat. Although ceramic Achaemenid bowls are reported (Bakır, 1997, p. 552), and the role of the lion-hunt in Macedonian court life and royal iconography has been associated with a Persian model (Briant; Palagia). Receptivity can be recognized in both the form and the surface treatment. some shapes show a relationship with Achaemenid toreutic (Miller, 1993; idem, 1997, pp. Preliminary surveys show traces also in other ceramic repertoires of Greece. P16828), probably through the intermediary of the shape in silver in 4th- and 3rd-century Macedon, though the type started be-fore Alexander’s conquest (Rotroff, pp. Production of the “von Mercklin” class rhyta in more than one center in Greece in the 4th and 3rd centuries probably reflects a metalware intermediary (Ebbinghaus and Jones). Images from Persian imperial art caused Athenian vase-painters to re-envision episodes from Greek myth or even to re-cast Greek myth into a foreign ambience. In about the mid-5th century, a number of kings from Greek mythology adopted the trappings of Persian monarchy, following the model of Achaemenid throne scenes. The discovery of a small-scale depiction of the Great King enthroned on sealings at Daskyleion testifies to the manner in which such images may have come to the attention of the Attic vase-painter (AMI 22, 1989, p. 1." href="/img/v11f3/Greece_ii_plate01.jpg"PLATE I), and a reasonably accurate representation of a Persian dignitary in audience on an Attic vase otherwise establishes knowledge of such subjects in Athens (Istanbul Inv. The military impetus to naval empire in the 5th century yielded the concomitant result of increased trade within and without the Greek world, and both through a variety of mechanisms increased the material wealth of classical Athens.
236; idem, 2001), the best-known corpora for reception at Daskyleion are a cache of over 500 bullae and the Perso-Anatolian stelai (often misleadingly termed “Greco-Persian”). Though the iconography is profoundly Iranian (here, for example, are some of the most convincing depictions of Persian ), their inscriptions show that at least some stelai were for non-Iranians. At present the best understood ceramic tradition is that of Athens, where from the late 6th century to at least the 3rd century B. In the latter cases, it is unclear whether inspiration came directly from the Persian-dominated east or indirectly, modelled on the Attic example. In the early Hellenistic period, the profile of some types of the Greek kantharos (in metal) evolved towards one closer to the Achaemenid deep bowl (Pfrommer, p. In the later 6th century, the gifts taken by Priam to Achilles to ransom his son Hektor (narrated in 24) began to be rendered in a procession akin to depictions of tributaries bearing gifts to the Achaemenid king (PLATE X, Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Inv. We find Persianized Midas and Bousiris attended by guards and a fan-bearer (PLATE XI, London, British Museum, Inv. The increased gap between the wealthiest and the poorest Athenian citizen, and the growth in the non-citizen population of Athens, created a situation in which a wider range of status indicators became desirable.